The number of immigrants to Cleveland increased during late 19th and early 20th century due to industrial revolution. With major employment opportunities in Downtown, University Circle and the industrial districts, the actual number of working people in the city is more than its residential population. The daytime population rises to around 593000 because of the inflow of commuters for their jobs in Cleveland.
According to the 2000 Census, 478403 people and 111904 families were living in the city and the population density of Cleveland was 6166.5 people per square mile. The Ethnic groups in Cleveland include Irish, Italians, Germans, Poles and English. There are also some communities living in Cleveland which include French, Romanians, Hungarians, Arabs, Russian, Dutch, Slovaks, Czechs, Croats, Greeks and West Indians. Most of the foreign-born in Cleveland are of Asian or European decent. The African-American population is concentrated near the eastern suburbs and on the east side of Cleveland whereas Hispanics are located more on the west side neighborhoods of the city.
Cleveland demographics has a small population of married couple families and more of single parent population as compared to other cities. It also has a high number of single person households. Of the 190638 households, there were only 28.5% married couples, 29.9% had children below the age of 18 living with them and non-families were 41.3%. Around 26.3% of the total population was below the line of poverty with the males median income being $30610 and for females it was $24214. From the total population, 37.6% of underage children and 16.8% of 65 years old or above people were living below the poverty line.
In recent years, the city of Cleveland continues to lose population but at a very slow rate. The city lost 2,658 people in 2009, making it the largest numerical drop in major American cities. Since 2000, Cleveland has lost around 10% of its population. However, Cleveland's Downtown area has performed better as compared to others in demographics. Cleveland population has decreased by 5.4% in 1990s as compared to the 8.9% loss in 1980s but the city is no longer first in terms of percentage decline in population.